The primary role of the RNA is to convert the information stored in the DNA into proteins. Although RNA performs variety of roles in the human system like the transformation of genetic information, process of protein synthesis is very important function of RNA. It acts as a messenger between the genes present in the DNA and their protein product thus resulting in the synthesis of protein. In cell biology, ribonucleic acid or RNA can be of several types however it is broadly classified into three major categories.
Types of RNA and its functions
The major categories of RNA are
- mRNA or messenger RNA
- rRNA or Ribosomal RNA
- tRNA or Transfer RNA
Messenger RNA or mRNA
Protein synthesis begins in the nucleus of the cell. DNA cannot be present in the nuclear pores therefore these mRNA which belongs to the large family of RNA molecules convey the genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes. These are created during transcription by decoding the strands of DNA with the help of RNA polymerase.
Ribosomal RNA or rRNA
RRNA is the main component involved in the protein synthesis. Protein in an important constituent of every cell in the body for the building the body and repairing the tissues. Hope everybody will be aware of the fact that organs, tissues and muscles are made up of proteins.
Transfer RNA or tRNA
TRNA are also involved in protein synthesis occurring in cytoplasmic ribosomes. tRNA has the ability to transit from cytoplasm to the nucleus and back again to mitosis through a process called retrograde. They mainly serve as the physical link structure between the messenger RNA and protein sequence.
Summing it up
Proteins combine with nuclei acid to form nucleoproteins which are essential amino acid to keep your muscles strong and healthy.